|Apart from the constraints on the specification of the
fat, like those mentioned in
more and more attention has been asked for the type of fatty
acids. The different types of fatty acids are given in
Especially the last 15 years much more studies have been
made to understand better the relation between the type of
fatty acids and the risk of CHD
(Coronary Heart Disease).
It is scientifically accepted
- trans fatty acids increase the LDL and even lower
the HDL: the risk for CHD is clearly higher with trans
fatty acids than with saturated fatty acids
- saturated fatty acids increase the LDL some
indicative research shows different effects depending on
the chain length, but this should be studied more
- mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids are lowering
Even the ratio linoleic/linolenic acid is more important
than understood in the past.
For each application there are different constraints for
the fat applied, like N-line, taste keepability or oxidation
stability, but also healthy constraints like no trans (or
less than 1% in the fat), low in saturated fatty acids and
higher in mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids.
In order to fulfill all these contra dictionary
constraints and to get some solids at application
temperature there will be a minimum of saturated (+trans
fatty acids) required.
So reduction of trans fatty acids will usually result either
in higher levels of saturated fatty acids or in adaptation
of the other constraints.
If the constraints can not be adapted then the fat
blenders (refineries) have to use the
modifications techniques on a smart
way, at least taking into account that the sum of saturated
+trans should be not higher than before the change,
resulting always in a lower risk for CHD:
- Interesterification of e.g. BO69 (fully hardened BO
with trans<2) with BO/RP, POs with PK, BO69/POs with
PK39 (fully hardened PK with trans lower <2) etc.
- Combination of interesterification and then
The newest healthy trend is to use no hardened components
at all. Then only fractionation and interesterification can
be used to make the required fat components.
In Europe and a lot of other countries the trans level in
consumer margarines is zero (<1); there is only some trans
present from the deodorization of liquid oils. The trans
level in bakery and industrial margarines/fats has been
reduced considerably too; mostly <5%.
For some special fats like CBR it is still difficult;
steepness of the N-line is based on high levels of trans.
But new CBR’s are on the market with trans<15, but the N35
is higher than in high trans CBR.
consultant can support you because of his global and
long experience in reducing the trans content in
margarines/fats (consumer and industrial application)